COMMUNISM IN SPAIN AND TENERIFE


DEFINITION: are family and political ideas and social movements relating to the establishment of an egalitarian, classless and stateless society based on common ownership and control of the means of production and property in general, it is the liberation of working classes (proletariats) against capitalists and bourgeoisies who accumulate wealth and political power to dominate and exploit working classes.
Some communist follow Karl Mark and Friedrich Engels’s philosophy.
COMMUNISM IN SPAIN

The Communist party was founded on November 14th, 1921. It suffered severely from the repression of the dictatorship of general Miguel Primo de Rivera ( 1923-1930)
It was directed by José Díaz and Dolores Ibárruri, known as La Pasionaria) and Enrique Lister Forjá, who took refuge in Moscow in 1936 at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
Dolores Ibárruri, known as “La Pasionaria” after Falangists having killed all their children, she directed the Communist party. She said "It is better dying standing up than living on your knees"
The Republican defeat in April 1939, the PCE was persecuted by the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco (1939- 1975).
Santiago Carrillo was the leader of the PCE, but many militants separated from him founding other similar communist parties in 1973. After the great defeat in 1982, he lost his leadership and was expelled from the party in 1985.
There were 30.000 militants in 1986, during the anti_NATO struggle. The PCE was held by Gerardo Iglesias from 1982 to 1988 and by Julio Anguita from 1988 to 1998, and since 1998 the post is held by Francisco Frutos.
COMMUNISM IN TENERIFE

PUCC, Party of Communist Unification in the Canaries, a communist political party working for the political autonomy of Canary Islands, underground during Francisco Franco Dictatorship. The leader was Paco Tovar Santos. It appeared in 1975 and held its first conference in 1978, the second congress of PUCC was in 1980, later its name was changed into Revolutionary Left Movement-PUCC Canary Islands.The group is no longer active today.
Interviewing my grandfather

During 40s.
My grandfather was a Communist. Communists were called “The Red”, because of the colour of the communist flag. He told me that during Franco’s dictatorship, communists were persecuted, killed in Spain, because their ideology was different from fascists ( named blue shirt people) . Many people: artists, painters, writers were taken out from their homes and families by the civil guard at dawn to be executed: ones were shot and pulled into a graveyard or buried in a common tomb, others were put into a sack, taken on a boat and sank with a rock in the sea.
There were many innocent people who died without being Communists, because their neighbours who hated or felt envy accused them as Communists to the civil guard. Many mothers were looking at their husbands and sons’ corps in the graveyards. When they found them, they cried desperately. You could hear their moans far away.
They hid themselves in underground places to celebrate their meetings. They listened to a radio called "La Pirinaica" at 5 a.m, and it was never discovered by the Civil Guard.
Being a communist meant fighting against the abuses of “the Cacique”, the person who owned many fields. He exploited the men working in his fields, the farmers lived in a house in his fields, he thought he had his right to have sex with their women and daughters.

At 70 & 80s

When Franco died, the communist party was legalized in 9 April 1977. They defended Carl Marx's ideas. The farmers and labours were against the bourgeoisie. The most important Government jobs were still held by people from the Mainland, Canary Islands were considered colonies that belonged to the Mainland. People from the Mainland were called “Godos”, a contemptuous word, to define the person who came to Canary Islands to humiliate and subdue canary people, who considered them inferior and fool.
They didn’t need to apply for an official job.
When Canary Islands had their own government, their official jobs were being occupied by local people.
A list of more than 9.000 victims, who died during Franco's dictatorship was handed to Judge Garzón.
From my grandfather’s point of view Communist Party is weak nowadays, because people don’t trust on them, they don’t fight for an ideology, they only look for power and money as most of political parties. Most people voted Socialism (PSOE), Conservatives (PP) or Nationalists (CC). Socialists won the elections in Tenerife, but Conservatives and Nationalists joined to defeat them.
By Laura 4º A.